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Vendor: Cisco Exam Code: 200-125 Exam Name: CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate CCNA (v3.0) Version: DemoDEMO

QUESTION 1 A network administrator needs to configure a serial link between the main office and a remote location. The router at the remote office is a non-Cisco 200-125 dumps router. How should the network administrator configure the serial interface of the main office router to make the connection? A. Main(config)# interface serial 0/0 Main(config-if)# ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.252 Main(config-if)# no shut B. Main(config)# interface serial 0/0 Main(config-if)# ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.252 Main(config-if)# encapsulation ppp Main(config-if)# no shut C. Main(config)# interface serial 0/0 Main(config-if)# ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.252 Main(config-if)# encapsulation frame-relay Main(config-if)# authentication chap Main(config-if)# no shut D. Main(config)# interface serial 0/0 Main(config-if)#ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.252 Main(config-if)#encapsulation ietf Main(config-if)# no shut Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 2 Which Layer 2 protocol encapsulation type supports synchronous and asynchronous circuits and has built- in security mechanisms? A. HDLC B. PPP C. X.25 D. Frame Relay Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 3 Refer to the exhibit. The two connected ports cissp dumps on the switch are not turning orange or green. What would be the most effective steps to troubleshoot this physical layer problem? (Choose three.)A. Ensure that the Ethernet encapsulations match on the interconnected router and switch ports. B. Ensure that cables A and B are straight-through cables. C. Ensure cable A is plugged into a trunk port. D. Ensure the switch has power. E. Reboot all of the devices. F. Reseat all cables. Correct Answer: BDF

QUESTION 4 A network administrator is troubleshooting the OSPF 100-105 dumps configuration of routers R1 and R2. The routers cannot establish an adjacency relationship on their common Ethernet link. The graphic shows the output of the show ip ospf interface e0 command for routers R1 and R2. Based on the information in the graphic, what is the cause of this problem? A. The OSPF area is not configured properly. B. The priority on R1 should be set higher. C. The cost on R1 should be set higher. D. The hello and dead timers are not configured properly. E. A backup designated router needs to be added to the network. F. The OSPF process ID numbers must match. Correct Answer: D

QUESTION 5 Standard industrialized protocol of etherchannel? A. LACP B. PAGP C. PRP D. REP Correct Answer: A

210-260 dumps QUESTION 6 Two features of the extended ping command? (Choose two.) A. It can send a specific number of packet B. It can send packet from specified interface of IP address C. It can resolve the destination host nameD. It can ping multiple host at the same time Correct Answer: AB

QUESTION 7 What command is used to configure a switch as authoritative NTP server? A. ntp master 3 B. ntp peer IP C. ntp server IP D. ntp source IP Correct Answer: A

QUESTION 8 Two statements about syslog loging? A. Syslog logging is disabled by default B. Messages are stored in the internal memory of device C. Messages can be erased when device reboots D. Messages are stored external to the device E. other F. other Correct Answer: AD

QUESTION 9 How to enable vlans automatically across multiple switches? A. Configure VLAN B. Confiture NTP C. Configure each VLAN D. Configure VTP Correct Answer: D

QUESTION 10 Refer to the exhibit. A network administrator is configuring an EtherChannel 300-101 dumps between SW1 and SW2. The SW1 configuration isshown. What is the correct configuration for SW2? A. interface FastEthernet 0/1 channel-group 1 mode active switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk interface FastEthernet 0/2 channel-group 1 mode active switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk B. interface FastEthernet 0/1 channel-group 2 mode auto switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk interface FastEthernet 0/2 channel-group 2 mode auto switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk C. interface FastEthernet 0/1 channel-group 1 mode desirable switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk interface FastEthernet 0/2 channel-group 1 mode 640-911 dumps desirable switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk D. interface FastEthernet 0/1 channel-group 1 mode passive switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk interface FastEthernet 0/2 channel-group 1 mode passive switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk Correct Answer: C

300-135 400-051 101 adm-201 1z0-808 CCA-500 1v0-621 mb2-707 70-980 70-483 2v0-621 nse4 1z0-434 9l0-012 101-400 300-085 og0-093 1z0-061 70-488 1z0-062 mb5-705 102-400 PEGACPBA71V1 70-463 mb2-704 PR000041 IIA-CIA-PART1 700-037 PEGACSA71V1 1z0-144 2v0-621d 1z0-051 070-461 a00-211 jn0-102 1z0-804 640-875 API-580 3002 400-151 98-365 712-50 9l0-066 ns0-506 156-215.77 70-466 lx0-104 9a0-385 642-980 og0-091 74-678 700-260 70-494 c_tfin52_66 lx0-103 m70-101 pmi-001 DEV-401 1z0-067 1K0-001 220-801 TB0-123 700-038 IIA-CIA-PART2 cwna-106 070-487 hp0-y50 070-483 mb2-708 C2010-595 1z0-883 c_tadm51_731 pk0-003 700-039 jn0-633 98-364 300-080 74-343 1z0-133 70-465 c_tscm62_66 PRINCE2-PRACTITIONER mb6-704 1v0-605 API-571 500-007 and-401 c_taw12_731 AX0-100 070-463 70-981 1z0-052 070-488 c_hanatec_10 010-111 mb6-700 700-270 600-455 600-460 1z0-533

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Introduction

Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are a problem of the vascular (blood vessel)system.

AVM result from an abnormal connection between the arteries and the veins and canoccur anywhere in the body.
Normally blood flows from arteries to veins through a network of tiny vessels in the tissues known as capillaries.

This capillary bed allows oxygen and nutrients to pass from the blood into the tissues and for waste products to be removed.

In an AVM, the capillaries are abnormally dilated as shown in the picture below.Sometimes there is no capillary bed at all (fistula).

These abnormal connections allow blood to pass more rapidly from the arteries to the veins (called arterio-venous shunting) with a number of consequences.

  • The arteries and veins enlarge and can rupture and bleed.
  • The rapid flow can steal blood from surrounding tissues or even cause the heart to fail in very young children.
  • Increased pressure in the veins draining the AVM results in congestion of the surrounding tissues which stop working properly Arteriovenous malformations.

The structural blood vessel abnormality is normally present from birth, although it may not be apparent until later.

The cause of arteriovenous malformations is unknown, although some cases they may be associated with particular genetic abnormalities.

There is no evidence that any foods, activities or medications taken during pregnancy can lead to the development of arteriovenous malformations in the foetus.

The clinical effect of an AVM will depend on many factors including its size and location and how rapidly the blood is flowing through it. Some AVMs are small and never cause a problem, others can be massive and dangerous if not treated.

The vascular system in more detail

Arteries normally carry blood rich in oxygen away from the heart. The oxygen is delivered to the tissues (muscles, brain, liver, skin etc) from the blood via the very smallest vessels known as capillaries. After the blood has passed through the capillaries the blood is brought back to the lungs by the veins. The blood is ‘re-charged’ with oxygen in the lungs, then the oxygen-rich blood is passed to the heart to be pumped again through the arteries to the tissues.

In addition to allowing transfer of oxygen to the tissues, capillaries carry away carbon dioxide, which is a waste product constantly produced by the tissues.

Capillaries also help to exert a dampening effect on the high pressure within the arteries. In their absence this pressure is transferred directly to the veins, which have thinner walls and are used to working at lower pressure. Veins become distorted and damaged by the constant exposure to these abnormally high pressures. They can rupture and bleed. Also, they become congested and cannot drain blood from the surrounding structures properly.

Because capillaries are abnormal or lacking in an arteriovenous malformation the normal process of delivery of oxygen is not possible. This may lead to insufficient oxygen delivery to the tissues close to the arteriovenous malformation, despite the high blood flow.

The increased rate of blood flow through an arteriovenous malformation can lead to increased work for the heart. In very young children, occasionally this ‘short-circuit’can lead to heart failure requiring urgent treatment.

Signs and Symptoms of AVMs

The effects of arteriovenous malformations are extremely varied and will depend on the size of the malformation, the tissues it involves and the rate of blood flow. Possible complications of arteriovenous malformations include pain and bleeding. Some arteriovenous malformations may produce no symptoms at all, and are only discovered by chance. AVMs confined to the skin may cause cosmetic problems, but do not usually present a significant danger, whereas even a small AVM in the brain can be very serious if it bleeds.

AVMs involving the skin

Although arteriovenous malformations develop before birth, they may not be evident at birth. Sometimes an arteriovenous malformation involving the skin may be seen as a dull red stain at birth or shortly after. The affected area may enlarge and become evident as a swelling, which may feel hot. It is often possible to feel pulsation within the swelling. As the rate of blood flow within the arteriovenous malformation increases over time, there may be darkening of the skin with more pulsation and local warmth.

Early in childhood the arteriovenous malformations that cause staining of the skin can be mistaken for abnormalites called port-wine stains or haemangiomas

Although usually localised to the skin layers, occasionally an AVM seen in the skin can indicate a much larger lesion involving underlying muscle, bone and other
organs.

Most arteriovenous malformations involving the brain or internal organs are ‘invisible’ – ie they do not have any visible mark on the skin.

Associated Problems

Arteriovenous malformations can occur in combination with other disorders
including hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), Parkes Weber syndrome (arteriovenous malformations associated with enlargement of a limb) Wyburn-Mason syndrome (arteriovenous malformations of the brain associated with an abnormality of the retina in the eye), and Cobb syndrome (vascular malformations of the skin with an arteriovenous malformation of the spinal cord).

Investigations

Arteriovenous malformations involving skin and underlying tissues can often be diagnosed clinically. The skin can feel warmer than unaffectd areas, and it may be possible to feel a thrill (this is a ‘buzzing’ feeling, rather like the sensation you get if you touch a purring cat). Using a stethoscope it may be possible to hear a distinctive sound, known as a bruit..

More detailed investigations may then be requested by your doctor. These may include ultrasound, MRI and arteriography.

Treatment

Treatment will depend on the location and size of the arteriovenous malformation and the type of problems that it is causing. Each case needs to be assessed on an individual basis. The expertise of a number of specialists may be necessary, depending on the location of the lesion. In some cases, the blood flow through the AVM can be decreased using techniques to block the blood vessels. This procedure is called embolisation and is performed by an interventional radiologist. It is very
rare that embolisation offers a ‘cure’ but it can be helpful in making the AVM less troublesome.

Written by Glover M, Barnacle A, Robertson F . Great Ormond Street Hospital 3.9.12

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